Bitcoin: Ist der Bitcoin ein Betrug? - DER SPIEGEL

Top Posts and Comments of the Day

Top of the Day for 11/02/2020

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Most Upvoted Posts of the Day

First Place
This little guy always bring dried seed to trade for some nuts
posted by vosszaa on /aww
Click here to view the post. ● 142,756 Upvotes ● Posted: 10/02/2020 at 08:52:30 UTC
Second Place
Keanu Reeves brought his mom to the Oscars
posted by Prophettx on /pics
Click here to view the post. ● 121,964 Upvotes ● Posted: 10/02/2020 at 00:42:02 UTC
Third Place
We can all relate to this
posted by MrGae_Boi on /memes
Click here to view the post. ● 95,895 Upvotes ● Posted: 10/02/2020 at 06:32:07 UTC
Fourth Place
Iwata truly was an amazing man
posted by wj7_02 on /gaming
Click here to view the post. ● 94,811 Upvotes ● Posted: 10/02/2020 at 11:08:56 UTC
Fifth Place
Parasite Wins Best Picture at the 92nd Academy Awards
posted by rekrap13 on /movies
Click here to view the post. ● 92,269 Upvotes ● Posted: 10/02/2020 at 04:28:06 UTC

Most Downvoted Posts of the Day

This section is currently being worked on.

Most Upvoted Comments of the Day

IMPORTANT NOTE: This section may be not be accurate as it is under development. Currently this only gets the most upvoted top-level comments from the most upvoted posts today.
First Place
bong joon ho about to get so drunk tonight
posted by JoeKoh on /movies
Click here to view the post. ● 20,387 Upvotes ● Posted: 10/02/2020 at 04:28:26 UTC
Second Place
this confirms he knows the location of the fountain of youth
posted by CptnBligh on /pics
Click here to view the post. ● 11,735 Upvotes ● Posted: 10/02/2020 at 01:02:46 UTC
Third Place
How’d you get that started?
posted by Meydez on /aww
Click here to view the post. ● 10,125 Upvotes ● Posted: 10/02/2020 at 09:06:10 UTC
Fourth Place
Me if Parasite didn’t win: The Oscars are meaningless and I couldn’t care less for awards shows. ` Me right now: The Academy once again recognizes real talent, go ahead.`
posted by johny-karate on /movies
Click here to view the post. ● 9,865 Upvotes ● Posted: 10/02/2020 at 04:31:26 UTC
Fifth Place
Rode a taxi in Seoul when the news was announced. `Taxi driver’s like,` Hell, we may as well just give him the presidency at this point. ` #BONG 2022`
posted by KloudMcJoo on /movies
Click here to view the post. ● 9,162 Upvotes ● Posted: 10/02/2020 at 04:45:48 UTC

Most Downvoted Comments of the Day

This section is currently being worked on.

Most Gilded Posts of the Day

IMPORTANT NOTE: This section may be not be accurate as it is under development.
First Place
Hello Reddit! Just want to share my latest work with you guys. Have a great week!
posted by wagnerkuroiwa on /pics
Click here to view the post. ● 55,289 Upvotes ● 3 reward(s). ● 1 silver reward(s), 1 gold reward(s) and 1 platinum reward(s) ● Posted: 10/02/2020 at 13:40:46 UTC
Second Place
We have each other
posted by lolaBe1 on /assholedesign
Click here to view the post. ● 100,742 Upvotes ● 3 reward(s). ● 1 silver reward(s), 1 gold reward(s) and 1 platinum reward(s) ● Posted: 06/02/2020 at 12:08:55 UTC
Third Place
Rick Astley says he's going to play \"Never Gonna Give You Up\" actually covers \"Africa\" by Toto.
posted by Hyperc3 on /videos
Click here to view the post. ● 46,887 Upvotes ● 3 reward(s). ● 1 silver reward(s), 1 gold reward(s) and 1 platinum reward(s) ● Posted: 10/02/2020 at 00:45:04 UTC
Fourth Place
TIFU by getting busted by the cops while in my bra/panties after breaking and entering to get my friend insulin
posted by BombAssDay on /tifu
Click here to view the post. ● 41,845 Upvotes ● 3 reward(s). ● 1 silver reward(s), 1 gold reward(s) and 1 platinum reward(s) ● Posted: 10/02/2020 at 13:11:28 UTC
Fifth Place
Evening commute in Tokyo - Part 1, Me, Photography, 2020
posted by MewSoul on /Art
Click here to view the post. ● 7,938 Upvotes ● 3 reward(s). ● 1 silver reward(s), 1 gold reward(s) and 1 platinum reward(s) ● Posted: 09/02/2020 at 13:24:56 UTC

Most Gilded Comments of the Day

IMPORTANT NOTE: This section may be not be accurate as it is under development.
First Place
There's genuinely nothing quite like American optimism. `I know, I know... the done thing is to shit-talk America in threads like this, but speaking as a Brit, that's what really makes the USA special and relatively unique in terms of national histories. America is a country that's (at least theoretically) built on the idea of equality and justice quite literally for all. You had the sheer brass balls to put a big ol' statue up at one of the most trafficked entryways in the world -- yes, yes, OP's momma notwithstanding -- that literally asked the world to give you its tired, its poor, its huddled masses yearning to breathe free. You built an entire mythology around the idea that, by pulling together and with a little elbow grease, you can make something of yourself no matter where you start from.` Is it true? No, not completely -- not for a lot of people. But it *is* important. It's a hardscrabble world out there, and the idea that Americans are better because they'll do the right thing, the honourable thing, the *decent* thing no matter how hard that might be makes things a little bit brighter. It's important that the first thing countless immigrants got to see wasn't a display of America's power and strength and prosperity but of America's guidance: a torchlight in the darkness. That most mythological of figures, Superman, espouses the idea of Truth, Justice and the *American* Way for a reason. That's not because it's the way things are, but because it's the way things can be. It's something to aspire to. It's Atticus Finch and Jefferson Smith and Rocky Balboa and the Little Engine That Could. `You lose your way sometimes -- and you really, *really* do lose your way; no one should dispute that, especially given recent events -- but you're never so far gone that you can't pull your way back. America is one of very, very few countries where you always feel that that return is both possible, and something that you root for. It's the world's largest superpower that has never quite learned that it isn't the plucky underdog.` Don't let that optimism and hope for the future die out. Don't let the feeling that you can step up and change things even when the odds seem stacked against you become apathy, hate and fear. Don't be afraid to learn, to improve, to be better. I spend a *lot* of time writing about American politics, and I know full well how stressful it can be, but without hope there can be no change for the better. Improvement is aspirational, and it depends on people getting out there and choosing to try, even when it looks and feels like it makes no difference at all -- because it still does. ` If anything, that's when it matters the most -- and it's worth keeping.`
posted by Portarossa on /AskReddit
Click here to view the post. ● 7,346 Upvotes ● 3 reward(s). ● 1 silver reward(s), 1 gold reward(s) and 1 platinum reward(s) ● Posted: 10/02/2020 at 16:03:01 UTC
Second Place
It happens across America. `Just some examples of thin blue line law and order #BlueLivesMatter` * [An inmate died after being locked in a scalding shower for two hours [skin melted off]. His guards won’t be charged.](https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/morning-mix/wp/2017/03/20/an-inmate-died-after-being-locked-in-a-scalding-shower-for-two-hours-his-guards-wont-be-charged/) ([More examples of guards laughing while murdering](https://www.theatlantic.com/ideas/archive/2019/08/thirty-two-stories-jeffrey-epstein-prison-death/596029/)) `* [NC agencies lock down info on inmate’s death from dehydration ](https://www.newsobserver.com/news/local/crime/article10122629.html)` * [Timothy Souders died of dehydration, chained to a concrete slab, on surveillance video.](https://www.cbsnews.com/news/the-death-of-timothy-souders/) `* [2 corrections officers in inmate's beating, cover-up, Feds say](https://www.nbcboston.com/news/local/2-corrections-officers-arrested-in-inmates-beating-cover-up-feds-say/2072968/)` * [Jailers shut off water to Terrill Thomas' cell, and he died of dehydration. The jail was under the leadership of then-Sheriff David Clarke, a hero to law-and-order types.](https://www.cnn.com/2019/05/29/us/milwaukee-inmate-dehydration-lawsuit/index.html) `* [Trump Pardons Convicted Crooked Cop Arpaio · The Collected Crimes of Sheriff Joe Arpaio](https://longreads.com/2017/08/28/the-collected-crimes-of-sheriff-joe-arpaio/)` >His officers burned a dog alive for no reason, then laughed as the dog’s owners cried. `>He staged a fake assassination attempt against himself, costing taxpayers more than $1 million.` * [What Dog Shootings Reveal About American Policing](https://www.theatlantic.com/politics/archive/2017/07/what-dog-shootings-reveal-about-american-policing/533319/) `* [US police shoot dogs so often that a Justice Department expert calls it an “epidemic”](https://qz.com/870601/police-killing-dogs-is-an-epidemic-according-to-the-justice-department/)` * [Bodycam Catches Cop Planting Drugs During Traffic Stops [parents lost their children due to these felony arrests]](https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UANRvFNc0hw) `* [Cops arrest man for recording them performing illegal search. Then accidentally record themselves destroying the evidence and conspiring to charge him with a felony.](https://www.thenation.com/article/police-arrested-this-cop-watch-activist-but-then-recorded-themselves-by-accident/)` * [Cops don disguises, trash cars of man who filed complaint against them](https://www.nj.com/monmouth/2019/09/cops-don-disguises-and-trash-cars-of-man-who-filed-complaint-against-them-in-stunning-act-of-revenge-prosecutor-alleges.html) `* [Undercover reporters went to multiple police stations & attempted to get the forms to file complaints against police officers. They were refused & even threatened at nearly all of them.](https://twitter.com/IntheNow_tweet/status/1123723776280092673) ([Longer news story](https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vnJ5f1JMKns))` * [Police Union Complains That Public Got to See Them Roughing Up Utah Nurse](http://reason.com/blog/2017/09/27/police-union-complains-that-public-got-t) `* [I Can Breathe Shirts - NYPD Police Protest Eric Garner](https://www.refinery29.com/en-us/2014/12/79850/i-can-breathe-shirts-eric-garner)` * [NYPD caught planting drugs for arrest despite effort to turn bodycam off](https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DrfZuPFrH8A) `* [Video shows North Carolina deputy picking up, slamming child to floor](https://www.nbcnews.com/news/us-news/video-shows-north-carolina-sheriff-s-deputy-violently-slamming-child-n1102191?cid=public-rss_20191214)` * [Seattle police investigate viral videos showing officers attacking anti-Trump protesters · Seattle police are investigating two viral videos showing officers ramming their bikes into pedestrians ... throw him on the wall and arrest him; Another shows an officer trip on his own bike then tackle a demonstrator](https://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-7799359/Seattle-police-investigate-viral-videos-showing-officers-attacking-anti-Trump-protesters.html) `* [Cop Assaults Critical Mass Rider. Charges Filed Against Cyclist. Words fail when watching this clip of an NYPD officer forcibly knocking a Critical Mass rider to the pavement last Friday. The assault was caught on video by a bystander in Times Square](https://nyc.streetsblog.org/2008/07/28/cop-assaults-critical-mass-rider-charges-filed-against-cyclist/)` * [Two police officers in Roswell, Ga., used a coin-tossing app while they decided whether to arrest a woman they had pulled over for speeding.](https://www.nytimes.com/2018/07/14/us/police-coin-flip-arrest.html) `* [Pennsylvania State Police crushes suspect with bulldozer, recordings vanish](https://apnews.com/c93fd1d73eb8f933080fed2321947c5e)` * [Graphic video shows Daniel Shaver sobbing and begging officer for his life before 2016 shooting](https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/post-nation/wp/2017/12/08/graphic-video-shows-daniel-shaver-sobbing-and-begging-officer-for-his-life-before-2016-shooting/) `* [Kinsey was lying on the ground with his hands in the air and [complying] when he was shot. The officer who shot Kinsey remains employed and has not been terminated.](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shooting_of_Charles_Kinsey)` * [Cast-Out Police Officers Are Often Hired in Other Cities · An Oregon officer was barred from taking another police job after a charge involving a child. Three months later, he was a police chief in Kansas. Experts say it's a widespread problem.](https://www.nytimes.com/2016/09/11/us/whereabouts-of-cast-out-police-officers-other-cities-often-hire-them.html) `* [Kansas City, Kansas, police broke into a man’s home in the middle of the night and beat him before having him charged with battery of a law enforcement](https://apnews.com/fd1b9a575ae2af1c8da804d45c039a6a)` * [Man sues Honolulu police, city for forced urinal licking](https://abcnews.go.com/US/wireStory/man-sues-honolulu-police-city-forced-urinal-licking-68730420) `* [SURPRISE RULING: Ga. deputies granted immunity, won’t face murder charges in Taser death. The confrontation began when Martin, an African American, made a simple request for water on a hot July evening.](https://www.ajc.com/news/crime--law/judge-deputies-won-face-murder-charges-taser-death/ehSY0KBwwVbN1vNsuTv6gL/)` * [Chattanooga police officer being sued for forced baptism and groping during a traffic stop](https://www.tennessean.com/story/news/crime/2019/10/03/tennessee-deputy-forces-womans-baptism-chattanooga-lake-lawsuit/3850537002/) `* [Louisiana Police Appear To Be Using A Hoax Antifa List Created By 8Chan To Open Criminal Investigations](https://www.techdirt.com/articles/20180902/08580340566/louisiana-police-appear-to-be-using-hoax-antifa-list-created-8chan-to-open-criminal-investigations.shtml)` * [Texas Cop Kills 2 People, Allowed to Resign, Joins New Dept, Shoots Man on 2nd Day](http://thefreethoughtproject.com/cop-found-not-guilty-deadly-shootings-joins-new-department/) `* [Texas officer wins appeal of dismissal over feces sandwich](https://apnews.com/c76f863d591b436cb1b22f4e35718ebe)` * [Texas officer sexually abuses 14 year old girl, receives no sex offender status](http://www.chron.com/news/houston-texas/houston/article/Former-HISD-officer-admits-to-fondling-middle-11170371.php) `* [threw out the felony conviction of a high school teacher accused of having sex with a student after it was revealed that the sheriff’s detective on the case was having sex with the victim and had lied... he resigned with full benefits and moved to Florida](https://www.seattletimes.com/seattle-news/san-juan-sheriffs-use-of-courtroom-camera-to-view-jurors-notebook-lawyers-notes-sparks-outrage-and-dismissal-of-criminal-case/)` * [Cops Having Sex With Detainees Should Always Be Considered Rape, Say New York Politicians](https://theintercept.com/2017/11/02/nypd-rape-charges-new-york-law/) `* [9 Cops Show up to Hospital to Threaten NYPD's Teen Rape Victim Into Staying Silent](https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/post-nation/wp/2017/11/02/nypd-detectives-raped-a-teen-in-the-back-of-a-police-van-after-her-arrest-prosecutors-say/)` * [No jail time for 2 NYPD officers who admitted to raping teenage prisoner](https://theintercept.com/2019/08/30/nypd-anna-chambers-rape-probation/) ` * Domestic abuse is 400% higher in the law-enforcement community`
posted by NRAsays on /news
Click here to view the post. ● 6,258 Upvotes ● 3 reward(s). ● 1 silver reward(s), 1 gold reward(s) and 1 platinum reward(s) ● Posted: 10/02/2020 at 16:52:53 UTC
Third Place
That takes me back :) - So much has happened since that first comment... I was in a pretty dark place when I started looking for laughs with this. I had just finished cleaning out my fathers house after his death... official cause of death was \"unknown due to decomposition\" and I had been tasked to clean out his house where his body had been found. It was 100+ degrees around his house when he died and he didn't have an A/C unit. His body decomposed quickly and pretty much melted into the floor. The mattress he had died on was obviously removed... and so was the floor under it... and then the dirt under the subfloor needed to be excavated... I could never get that smell of death out of my mind and had to deal with it for the 30 days while I packed up his belongings. While cleaning out his house I found 3 suicide notes in envelopes next to several empty pill bottles... also a book on different ways of committing suicide earmarked. Most of his belongings had to be tossed out as everything smelled like death... I wasn't in a good financial place and was living in an old RV parked on some abandoned property. It was in the old RV sitting at the \"kitchen table\" when this all started - and after that first comment I laughed out loud for about 10 minutes. ` Things got better for me for a while... Bitcoin went through the roof and I had managed to get my hands on a few - so when it hit 15k or so I sold them. Bought myself a good car, sold that RV, and moved into a rental house. From there life has had it's ups and downs but that was def. a low point for me when this started... a VERY low point. In a weird way the entire Undertaker thing was a way for me to laugh and smile - something I didn't do much back then. Anyway, I know most of you are expecting this end a certain way but I wanted to get serious for a minute and mention what all this means to me. Thank you all for laughing with me... it really means a lot to me. <3 - SM`
posted by shittymorph on /shittymorph
Click here to view the post. ● 317 Upvotes ● 3 reward(s). ● 1 silver reward(s), 1 gold reward(s) and 1 platinum reward(s) ● Posted: 10/02/2020 at 08:23:52 UTC
Fourth Place
We are simultaneously one of the fattest countries in the world and one of the most athletic countries in the world. Sometimes we combine the two and make Offensive and Defensive lineman.
posted by RCJHGBR9989 on /AskReddit
Click here to view the post. ● 10,741 Upvotes ● 2 reward(s). ● 1 silver reward(s), 1 gold reward(s) and 0 platinum reward(s) ● Posted: 10/02/2020 at 17:30:47 UTC
Fifth Place
That's really sad. Like, really sad. I'm all for having hobbies and doing what you enjoy, but sitting on your ass 10 hours a day, *every day*, is downright pitiful. I love video games as much as the next person but I wish gamers would stop glorifying this kind of activity. It's not healthy nor impressive. Working 70 hours a week is extremely unhealthy, which is basically what this guy did, and he didnt even get paid.
posted by TommyPhamsGlasses on /classicwow
Click here to view the post. ● 178 Upvotes ● 2 reward(s). ● 1 silver reward(s), 1 gold reward(s) and 0 platinum reward(s) ● Posted: 10/02/2020 at 18:22:53 UTC
submitted by TopOfTheBot to TopOfThe [link] [comments]

Useful LoL websites and software | 2017

Intro: I saw the original thread back in 2015 and thought it needed some updating to the list since it's been over 2 years since that thread was posted and alot of the websites have been shutdown or closed and many new ones have came online. So I thought it would be a good time to update the list and add new websites to it. Credits for the original thread go to thepanthergaming.
Personal Stats ( Summoner Information)
Bitcoin Giveaway Discord Channel to 10 lucky winners: https://discord.gg/ZymnAAb
Champion Stats & Bans & Counters
Builds
News/LCS/Pro Scene
Guides and League Information
Replay Softwares
YouTube Guides
Official Riot
If there is any website, software or youtubers missing just put them in the comments
submitted by lolporocom to leagueoflegends [link] [comments]

What will happen to Telegram if America does not recognize GRAM as a cryptocurrency?

States around the world are in no hurry to legislatively regulate cryptocurrency, so far its place in the legal field on a par with non-state currencies. You can pay with cryptocurrency and buy goods, but what is important, its transfer is free and unlimited.
In history, there were cases of creating private currencies, but they were never recognized as legal and soon banned.
"Colony"
One resident of the village of Kolionovo near Moscow, Mikhail Shlyapnikov, started printing his own currency, calling it "kolion" and setting a fixed rate - 1 kolion is equal to 50 Russian rubles. At the same time, the Issuer of this "money" claimed that the colions were his personal ious.
The entrepreneur came up with these banknotes when he realized that it was difficult to get a loan on favorable terms. Soon the farmer and his customers began to share with each other the colony. However, prosecutors considered a substitute for money illegal. Economists point out that in the history of humanity has repeatedly resorted to a system of credit.
"The state did not help us in any way, getting a loan was a problem. Then we came up with colions-initially as a fun game, which then turned into a financial instrument that allowed us to resolve a number of issues. Thanks to these receipts, we did not have to take commercial loans. We actually created our own system of" long "loans with a negative ruble rate," Shlyapnikov said.
"Free dollars"
Bernard von Nothaus-the man who created the so-called "freedom Dollars", which he conceived were to replace the us dollar. Little is known about him (Bernard von NotHaus). Even in the ubiquitous Wikipedia, it is only mentioned in connection with the creation of "free dollars". According to the resource, he is also known as the founder of the Free Marijuana Church of Honolulu.
In 2005, U.S. authorities began investigating von Nothaus ' financial activities. In 2006, the U.S. Mint issued a press release warning that "free dollars" are not legal currency.
Bernard von Nothaus went on trial for creating the "National organization for the Repeal of the Federal Reserve and the Internal Revenue Code, NORFED". In 1998, NORFED was renamed Liberty Services.
Liberty Services was engaged in the production and distribution of currency called "free dollar" (Liberty Dollar). "Free dollars" were minted in silver, gold, platinum and copper, and in design (designed again by von Nothaus) resembled official dollars. Thus, they depicted the dollar sign ( $ ), and were written the words - "dollar", the United States and the phrase Trust in God (instead Of in God We Trust).(Unfortunately we couldn't find an image of "Free dollar" on the Internet)
In addition," free dollars " were issued in paper form - in the form of special certificates for gold and silver, which could be exchanged for precious metals in a special warehouse. "Free dollars" were distributed until July 2009.
In July 2009, von Nothaus was arrested, and then formal charges were filed against him. And in March 2011, a North Carolina state court found von Nothaus guilty on two counts. No "exciting" trial occurred: the hearing lasted eight days, and the jury took only two hours to reach a verdict.
Cryptocurrency GRAM
Cryptocurrency Gram from the Creator of the social network Vkontakte and messenger Telegram was the most discussed project of 2018, not only in the digital cash market, but in the world in General. Such excitement among investors, traders, miners and just crypto enthusiasts has not been for a long time.
HYIP around the new cryptocurrency Durov lasts for a year, and news about the launch of TON Telegram-a blockchain on which the new coin will work-are waiting for millions of users from all six continents. Crypt is actively discussed on forums, and the request “where to buy Gram?” is one of the most popular in search engines.
Why telegram has its own cryptocurrency? In 2010, at the very beginning of the era of digital money, Durov already made an attempt to launch a cryptocurrency in the social network Vkontakte. 9 years ago, this initiative did not cause any interest or trust among users, and the launch did not take place. Since then, the attitude to cryptocurrency has changed dramatically. The news of Durov's creation of his cryptocurrency immediately caused a furore. Investors immediately began to consider Gram as a promising source for investments. The coin is launched not by someone there, but by Durov himself, whose previous projects inspire confidence in the success of the new one.
There are opinions that Durov's decision to create TON is connected with the desire to monetize the messenger and gain independence from major advertisers, governments, foundations, etc. Own cryptocurrency will expand Telegram's capabilities and make it even safer.
A direct competitor of Ethereum, capable of creating serious problems even for Bitcoin — Gram from the very beginning is considered as a dangerous rival for the leading representatives of the crypto community. Durov announced the monetization of Telegram, which means that users of the messenger will easily be able to use the built-in TON system and use the new currency for internal calculations and not only.
The United States is afraid of cryptocurrency GRAM?
Why was the US against telegram cryptocurrency and temporarily banned their sale? Us law holds that any issued token that is sold in the US automatically falls under the SEC's control. In fact, the American authorities consider the cryptocurrency, which is issued by various companies, securities.
It is known that buyers during the initial coin offering paid $0.37 per token, and the second round - $1.33 per coin. At a time, investors should invest at least $10 million in the platform. At the same time, during the mass launch of the sale of Gram, the coin should have cost $3.65, but now on the black market, Gram tokens are sold from $5 per piece — the profitability for one coin compared to the first round increased 15 times.
On this basis, the SEC concluded that Gram is a security, not a currency. For such activities, the company needs to disclose information about its work and investors who invest in the project.
The SEC filed a lawsuit against Telegram Inc. and Ton Issuer Inc. and achieved the imposition of an injunction on the distribution of Gram tokens among investors who participated in the presale. 1.7 billion dollars were collected by the project, and the distribution of tokens was planned just now. The decision of the American authorities was extremely brutal and treacherous. Although it is explained by the " care of investors." And the distribution of Gram tokens violates American laws, because, as stated in the lawsuit, it:
- Sale of tokens to us investors without prior registration of their offer, as required by US securities legislation.
The court decision obliges Telegram to register its cryptocurrency as a security or return the money to American investors in case of refusal. The documents of the regulator indicate that among the $ 1.7 billion raised in 2018 for the launch of the blockchain platform, at least $425 million falls on American investors who bought at least 1 billion Gram tokens. At the same time, the number of American investors may be much higher, since many ICO participants keep in the shadows.
submitted by falshami to u/falshami [link] [comments]

TIL that gold can currently be created with a particle accelerator or nuclear reactor but the cost is currently many more times the cost of mining....

How many years until all precious metals can just be created in a lab for cheap??? 20? 50 maybe. There will only be 21 million bitcoins!


GoldEdit

Chrysopoeia, the artificial production of gold, is the symbolic goal of alchemy. Such transmutation is possible in particle accelerators or nuclear reactors, although the production cost is currently many times the market price of gold. Since there is only one stable gold isotope, 197Au, nuclear reactions must create this isotope in order to produce usable gold.

Gold synthesis in an acceleratorEdit

Gold synthesis in a particle accelerator is possible in many ways. The Spallation Neutron Source has a liquid mercury target which will be transmuted into gold, platinum, and iridium, which are lower in atomic number than mercury.[citation needed]

Gold synthesis in a nuclear reactorEdit

Gold was synthesized from mercury) by neutron bombardment in 1941, but the isotopes of gold produced were all radioactive.[12] In 1924, a Japanese physicist, Hantaro Nagaoka, accomplished the same feat.[13]
Gold can currently be manufactured in a nuclear reactor by the irradiation of either platinum or mercury.
Only the mercury isotope 196Hg, which occurs with a frequency of 0.15% in natural mercury, can be converted to gold by slow neutroncapture, and following electron capture, decay into gold's only stable isotope, 197Au. When other mercury isotopes are irradiated with slow neutrons, they also undergo neutron capture, but either convert into each other or beta decay into the thallium isotopes 203Tl and 205Tl.
Using fast neutrons, the mercury isotope 198Hg, which composes 9.97% of natural mercury, can be converted by splitting off a neutron and becoming 197Hg, which then decays into stable gold. This reaction, however, possesses a smaller activation cross-section and is feasible only with unmoderated reactors.
It is also possible to eject several neutrons with very high energy into the other mercury isotopes in order to form 197Hg. However such high-energy neutrons can be produced only by particle accelerators.[clarification needed].
In 1980, Glenn Seaborg transmuted several thousand atoms of bismuth into gold at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. His experimental technique, using nuclear physics, was able to remove protons and neutrons from the bismuth atoms. Seaborg's technique was far too expensive to enable the routine manufacture of gold but his work is the closest yet to emulating the mythical Philosopher's Stone.[14][15]
submitted by Satoshi_addiction to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

A Look at DCG & Bitfury's Incestuous Ties With the U.S. Government

Peter Todd Tweet in 2014: https://archive.is/vKZ9C
[email protected] I gotta say, looks really bad legally how Austin Hill's been negotiating deals w/ pools/etc. to get control of hashing power.
Board of Digital Currency Group
Glenn Hutchins
Advisory Board
Larry Summers
DCG of course is an investor in both Blockstream and BTCC.
DCG's money comes from:
DCG also owns Coindesk.
BTCC and Bitfury are the only two large mining pools who are outspoken in their support of Bitcoin Core.
The Bitfury Group Leadership to Present at Clinton Global Initiative (https://archive.is/MWKee)
Full Video (Begins at 32:00)
“The Bitfury Group is proud to be the world’s leading full service Blockchain technology company, we are deeply honored to represent this innovation to an audience of extremely dedicated game-changers, and we look forward to highlighting our company’s groundbreaking ‘Blockchain for global good’ work at such an important event, said Smith. “From the White House to the Blockchain, I know this technology has the power to deliver inclusion and opportunity to millions, if not billions, of people around the world and I am so grateful to work for a company focused on such a principled vision.”
Bitfury Lightning Implementation
  • In partnership with a French firm called ACINQ (http://acinq.co)
  • ACINQ is a subsidiary of the larger ACINQ Financial Services
  • CoinTelegraph: Bitfury Lightning Network Successfully Tested With French Bitcoin Company
  • TEAM: https://archive.is/Q5CNU
  • ACINQ’s US Headquarters is in Vienna, Virginia, a small town of only 16,000. Why would a global financial firm choose to locate here? -- Feeder community into Washington, D.C. Has an orange line metro stop. -- Located in Fairfax County, VA. -- The US Federal Government is the #2 largest employer -- Booz Allen Hamilton (NSA front company) is #6 largest employer -- In fact, most of the top employers in Fairfax County are either US Federal Gov’t or companies that provide services to Federal Government -- The county is home to the headquarters of intelligence agencies such as the Central Intelligence Agency, National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency, and National Reconnaissance Office, as well as the National Counterterrorism Center and Office of the Director of National Intelligence.
Chairman: Avinash Vashistha
CEO: Chaman Baid
CSO: Nandan Setlur
  • https://www.linkedin.com/in/nandansetlur https://archive.is/wp3L0
  • From 1986-1993 he worked for Information Management Consultants (imc) Ltd as a Technical Consultant with various federal government agencies. McLean, Virginia
  • 1993-2000 Technical Consultant for Freddie Mac, in McLean Virginia
  • From 2000-2007, President of InterPro Global in Maryland
  • From 2011-2012, Director of VibbleTV in Columbia, Maryland
  • From 2008-Present has been Executive Director at ACINQ and Managing Partner at Vine Management, both in Vienna, Virginia.
BitFury Enhances Its Advisory Board by Adding Former CFTC Chairman Dr. James Newsome and Renowned Global Thought Leader and President of the Institute for Liberty and Democracy Hernando de Soto (Businesswire)
Bitfury Board of Directors
Robert R Dykes
The other board members include two Bitfury founders, and an investor.
Bitfury Advisory Board
James Newsome
  • Ex-chairman of CFTC
  • Dr. Newsome was nominated by President Clinton and confirmed by the Senate to be at first a Commissioner and later a Chairman of CFTC. As Chairman, Newsome guided the regulation of the nation’s futures markets. Additionally, Newsome led the CFTC’s regulatory implementation of the Commodity Futures Modernization Act of 2000 (CFMA). He also served as one of four members of the President’s Working Group for Financial Markets, along with the Secretary of the Treasury and the Chairmen of the Federal Reserve and the SEC. In 2004, Newsome assumed the role of President and Chief Executive Officer of the New York Mercantile Exchange (NYMEX) where he managed daily operations of the largest physical derivatives exchange in the world. Dr. Newsome is presently a founding partner of Delta Strategy Group, a full-service government affairs firm based in Washington, DC.
Hernando de Soto
  • Hernando de Soto heads the Institute for Liberty and Democracy, named by The Economist one of the two most important think tanks in the world. In the last 30 years, he and his colleagues at the ILD have been involved in designing and implementing legal reform programs to empower the poor in Africa, Asia, Latin America, the Middle East, and former Soviet nations by granting them access to the same property and business rights that the majority of people in developed countries have through the institutions and tools needed to exercise those rights and freedoms. Mr. de Soto also co-chaired with former US Secretary of State Madeleine Albright the Commission on Legal Empowerment of the Poor, and currently serves as honorary co-chair on various boards and organizations, including the World Justice Project. He is the author of “The Other Path: the Economic Answer to Terrorism”, and his seminal work “The Mystery of Capital: Why Capitalism Triumphs in the West and Fails Everywhere Else.”
  • Frequent attendee at Davos World Economic Forum
  • Frequent Speaker @ Clinton Global Initiative http://www.dailymotion.com/video/x2ytfrs https://archive.is/MWKee
  • Criticisms: -- In his 'Planet of Slums'[104] Mike Davis argues that de Soto, who Davis calls 'the global guru of neo-liberal populism', is essentially promoting what the statist left in South America and India has always promoted—individual land titling. Davis argues that titling is the incorporation into the formal economy of cities, which benefits more wealthy squatters but is disastrous for poorer squatters, and especially tenants who simply cannot afford incorporation into the fully commodified formal economy. -- An article by Madeleine Bunting for The Guardian (UK) claimed that de Soto's suggestions would in some circumstances cause more harm than benefit, and referred to The Mystery of Capital as "an elaborate smokescreen" used to obscure the issue of the power of the globalized elite. She cited de Soto's employment history as evidence of his bias in favor of the powerful. https://www.theguardian.com/business/2000/sep/11/imf.comment http://www.slate.com/articles/news_and_politics/hey_wait_a_minute/2005/01/the_de_soto_delusion.html
Tomicah Tilleman
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tomicah_Tillemann
  • Dr. Tomicah Tillemann is Director of the Bretton Woods II initiative. The initiative brings together a variety of long-term investors, with the goal of committing 1% of their assets to social impact investment and using investments as leverage to encourage global good governance. Tillemann served at the U.S. State Department in 2010 as the Senior Advisor on Civil Society and Emerging Democracies to Secretary Hillary Clinton and Secretary John Kerry. Tillemann came to the State Department as a speechwriter to Secretary Clinton in March 2009. Earlier, he worked for the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, where he was the principal policy advisor on Europe and Eurasia to Committee Chairmen, Senators Joe Biden and John Kerry. He also facilitated the work of the Senate's Subcommittee on European Affairs, then chaired by Senator Barack Obama. Tillemann received his B.A. magna cum laude from Yale University. He holds a Ph.D. with distinction from the School for Advanced International Studies at Johns Hopkins University (SAIS) where he also served as a graduate level instructor in American foreign policy. http://live.worldbank.org/node/8468 https://archive.is/raDHA
  • Secretary Clinton appointed Tomicah Tillemann, Ph.D. as the State Department’s Senior Advisor for Civil Society and Emerging Democracies in October 2010. He continues his service under Secretary Kerry.
  • Mr. Tillemann and his team operate like venture capitalists, identifying ideas that can strengthen new democracies and civil society, and then bring together the talent, technology and resources needed to translate promising concepts into successful diplomacy. He and his team have developed over 20 major initiatives on behalf of the President and Secretary of State.
  • Mr. Tillemann came to the State Department as a speechwriter to Secretary Clinton in March 2009 and collaborated with her on over 200 speeches. Earlier, he worked for the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, where he was the principal policy advisor on Europe and Eurasia to Committee Chairmen, Senators Joe Biden and John Kerry. He also facilitated the work of the Senate's Subcommittee on European Affairs, then chaired by Senator Barack Obama. Mr. Tillemann’s other professional experience includes work with the White House Office of Media Affairs and five U.S. Senate and Congressional campaigns. He was a reporter with Reuters New Media and hosted a commercial radio program in Denver, Colorado. http://m.state.gov/md160354.htm https://www.newamerica.org/our-people/tomicah-tillemann/ https://archive.is/u2yF0
  • Director of “Bretton Woods II” initiative at New America Foundation Bretton Woods was an international summit that led to the creation of the IMF and the IBRD, one of five members of The World Bank
Jamie Smith
Jason Weinstein
Paul Brody (no longer appears on site, and his LinkedIn has no mention of Bitfury, but he is mentioned in a Press Release
  • https://www.linkedin.com/in/pbrody
  • Ernst & Young since 2015 as “Americas Strategy Leader”, “Global Innovation Leader”, and “Solution Leader”
  • Prior to E&Y, he was an executive at IBM since 2002
New America Foundation
Muskoka Group
[note: this is worthy of much more research]
  • https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2016-08-29/blockchain-s-backers-embark-on-campaign-to-improve-its-image
  • Don Tapscott, co-author of the book “Blockchain Revolution,” hosted the meeting with his son and co-author Alex Tapscott at his family’s summer compound in Lake of Bays, Ontario. The group included some of blockchain’s biggest backers, including people with ties to IBM and JPMorgan. They considered ways to improve the governance and oversight of the technology behind the digital currency bitcoin as a way to fuel the industry’s growth. They included Jim Zemlin, executive director of the Linux Foundation; Brian Behlendorf, executive director of the Hyperledger Project, a blockchain supporter group that includes International Business Machines Corp., Airbus Group SE and JPMorgan Chase & Co.; and Ana Lopes, board member of the World Wide Web Foundation. Participants with blockchain industry ties include former deputy White House press secretary Jamie Smith, now chief global communications officer of BitFury Group Ltd., and Joseph Lubin, founder of startup Consensus Systems.
Blockchain Delegation Attends Democratic National Convention https://archive.is/k16Nu
Attendees:
Jamie Smith — The Bitfury Group & Blockchain Trust Accelerator Tomicah Tillemann— New America Foundation & Blockchain Trust Accelerator Alex Tapscott— co-author: Blockchain Revolution Brian Forde — MIT, Digital Currency Initiative
Brian Forde
  • Was the founding director of the MIT Digital Currency Initiative -Left his 4 year post as White House Senior Advisor for Mobile and Data Innovation to go directly to the MIT DCI
  • Brian Forde has spent more than a decade at the nexus of technology, entrepreneurship, and public policy. He is currently the Director of Digital Currency at the MIT Media Lab where he leads efforts to mainstream digital currencies like Bitcoin through research, and incubation of high-impact applications of the emerging technology. Most recently he was the Senior Advisor for Mobile and Data Innovation at the White House where he spearheaded efforts to leverage emerging technologies to address the President’s most critical national priorities. Prior to his work at the White House, Brian founded one of the largest phone companies in Nicaragua after serving as a business and technology volunteer in the Peace Corps. In recognition of his work, Brian was named a Young Global Leader by the World Economic Forum and one of the ten most influential people in bitcoin and blockchain. https://www.linkedin.com/in/brianforde https://archive.is/WjEGU
Alex Tapscott
World Economic Forum
  • Strategic Partners: https://www.weforum.org/about/strategic-partners
  • Includes Accenture (See Avinash Vashistha), Allianz, Deloitte (Scaling Bitcoin platinum sponsor, Blockstream Partner), Citigroup, Bain & Company (parent of Bain Capital, DCG investor), Dalian Wanda Group (working on blockchain technology), Ernst & Young (see Paul Brody), HSBC (Li-Ka Shing, Blockstream investor, used to be Deputy Chairman of HSBC), IBM, KPMG International, Mastercard (DCG Investor), PwC (Blockstream partner, also sponsor of Scaling Bitcoin)
  • Future of Financial Services Report [PDF] The word “blockchain” is mentioned once in this document, on page 23 (http://i.imgur.com/1SxyneJ.png): We have identified three major challenge areas related to innovation in financial services that will require multi-stakeholder collaboration to be addressed effectively. We are launching a project stream related to each area, with the goal of enabling tangible impact.... Decentralised systems, such as the blockchain protocol, threaten to disintermediate almost every process in financial services
  • The Steering Group who authored the report is a who’s who of the global financial elite. (Pages 4 & 5) http://i.imgur.com/fmYc1bO.png http://i.imgur.com/331FaX6.png
Bitfury Washington DC Office
Washington DC Office 600 Pennsylvania Avenue Suite 300 Washington, D.C. 20003
http://bitfury.com/contacts https://archive.is/ugvII
Bitfury Chosen for Ernst & Young Blockchain Startup Challenge
Deloitte Unveils Plan to Build Blockchain-Based Digital Bank http://www.consultancy.uk/news/12237/deloitte-unveils-plan-to-build-blockchain-based-digital-bank https://archive.is/UJ8Q5
submitted by 5zh8FoCiZ to btc [link] [comments]

DAG Technology Analysis and Measurement

The report produced by the fire block chain coins Institute, author: Yuan Yuming, Hu Zhiwei, PDF version please read the original text download
Summary
The Fire Coin Blockchain Application Research Institute conducts research on distributed ledger technology based on directed acyclic graph (DAG) data structure from a technical perspective, and through the specific technical test of typical representative project IOTA, the main research results are obtained:
Report body
1 Introduction
Blockchain is a distributed ledger technology, and distributed ledger technology is not limited to the "blockchain" technology. In the wave of digital economic development, more distributed ledger technology is being explored and applied in order to improve the original technology and meet more practical business application scenarios. Directed Acylic Graph (hereinafter referred to as "DAG") is one of the representatives.
What is DAG technology and the design behind it? What is the actual application effect?We attempted to obtain analytical conclusions through deep analysis of DAG technology and actual test runs of representative project IOTA.
It should also be noted that the results of the indicator data obtained from the test are not and should not be considered as proof or confirmation of the final effect of the IOTA platform or project. Hereby declare.
2. Main conclusions
After research and test analysis, we have the following main conclusions and technical recommendations:
3.DAG Introduction
3.1. Introduction to DAG Principle
DAG (Directed Acyclic Graph) is a data structure that represents a directed graph, and in this graph, it cannot return to this point (no loop) from any vertex, as shown in the figure. Shown as follows:
📷
After the DAG technology-based distributed ledger (hereinafter referred to as DAG) technology has been proposed in recent years, many people think that it is hopeful to replace the blockchain technology in the narrow sense. Because the goal of DAG at design time is to preserve the advantages of the blockchain and to improve the shortcomings of the blockchain.
Different from the traditional linear blockchain structure, the transaction record of the distributed ledger platform represented by IOTA forms a relational structure with a directed acyclic graph, as shown in the following figure.
📷
3.2. DAG characteristics
Due to the different data structure from the previous blockchain, the DAG-based distributed ledger technology has the characteristics of high scalability, high concurrency and is suitable for IoT scenarios.
3.2.1. High scalability, high concurrency
The data synchronization mechanism of traditional linear blockchains (such as Ethereum) is synchronous, which may cause network congestion. The DAG network adopts an asynchronous communication mechanism, allowing concurrent writing. Multiple nodes can simultaneously trade at different tempos without having a clear sequence. Therefore, the data of the network may be inconsistent at the same time, but it will eventually be synchronized.

3.2.2. Applicable to IoT scenarios

In the traditional blockchain network, there are many transactions in each block. The miners are packaged and sent uniformly, involving multiple users. In the DAG network, there is no concept of “block”, the smallest unit of the network. It is a "transaction", each new transaction needs to verify the first two transactions, so the DAG network does not need miners to pass the trust, transfer does not require a fee, which makes DAG technology suitable for small payments.
4. Analysis of technical ideas
Trilemma, or "trilemma", means that in a particular situation, only two of the three advantageous options can be selected or one of the three adverse choices must be chosen. This type of selection dilemma has related cases in various fields such as religion, law, philosophy, economics, and business management.Blockchain is no exception. The impossible triangle in the blockchain is: Scalability, Decentralization, and Security can only choose two of them.
If you analyze DAG technology according to this idea, according to the previous introduction, then DAG has undoubtedly occupied the two aspects of decentralization and scalability. The decentralization and scalability of the DAG can be considered as two-sided, because of the asynchronous accounting features brought about by the DAG data structure, while achieving the high degree of decentralization of the participating network nodes and the scalability of the transaction.
5. There is a problem
Since the characteristics of the data structure bring decentralization and scalability at the same time, it is speculated that the security is a hidden danger according to the theory of impossible triangles. But because DAG is a relatively innovative and special structure, can it be more perfect to achieve security? This is not the case from the actual results.
5.1. Double flower problem
The characteristics of DAG asynchronous communication make it possible for a double-flower attack. For example, an attacker adds two conflicting transactions (double spending) at two different locations on the network, and the transactions are continuously forward-checked in the network until they appear on the verification path of the same transaction, and the network discovers the conflict. At this time, the common ancestor nodes that the two transactions are gathered together can determine which transaction is a double-flower attack.
If the trading path is too short, there will be a problem like "Blowball": when most transactions are "lazy" in extreme cases, only the early trading, the trading network will form a minority. Early transactions are the core central topology. This is not a good thing for DAGs that rely on ever-increasing transactions to increase network reliability.
Therefore, at present, for the double flower problem, it is necessary to comprehensively consider the actual situation for design. Different DAG networks have their own solutions.
5.2. Shadow chain problem
Due to the potential problem of double flowers, when an attacker can build a sufficient number of transactions, it is possible to fork a fraudulent branch (shadow chain) from the real network data, which contains a double flower transaction, and then this The branch is merged into the DAG network, and in this case it is possible for this branch to replace the original transaction data.
6. Introduction to the current improvement plan
At present, the project mainly guarantees safety by sacrificing the native characteristics of some DAGs.
The IOTA project uses the Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) approach to solve this problem. The IOTA introduces the concept of Cumulative Weight for transactions to record the number of times the transaction has been cited in order to indicate the importance of its transaction. The MCMC algorithm selects the existing transactions in the current network as a reference for the newly added transactions by weighting the random weights of the accumulated weights. That is, the more referenced the transaction path, the easier it is to be selected by the algorithm. The walk strategy has also been optimized in version 1.5.0 to control the "width" of the transaction topology to a reasonable range, making the network more secure.
However, at the beginning of the platform startup, due to the limited number of participating nodes and transactions, it is difficult to prevent a malicious organization from sending a large number of malicious transactions through a large number of nodes to cause the entire network to be attacked by the shadow chain. Therefore, an authoritative arbitration institution is needed to determine the validity of the transaction. In IOTA, this node is a Coordinator, which periodically snapshots the current transaction data network (Tangle); the transactions contained in the snapshot are confirmed as valid transactions. But Coordinator doesn't always exist. As the entire network runs and grows, IOTA will cancel the Coordinator at some point in the future.
The Byteball improvement program features its design for the witness and the main chain. Because the structure of DAG brings a lot of transactions with partial order, and to avoid double flowers, it is necessary to establish a full order relationship for these transactions to form a transaction backbone. An earlier transaction on the main chain is considered a valid transaction.Witnesses, who are held by well-known users or institutions, form a main chain by constantly sending transactions to confirm other user transactions.
The above scheme may also bring different changes to the platform based on the DAG structure. Taking IOTA as an example, because of the introduction of Coordinator, the decentralization characteristics are reduced to some extent.
7. Actual operation
7.1. Positive effects
In addition to solving security problems, the above solutions can also solve the smart contract problem to some extent.
Due to the two potential problems caused by the native features of DAG: (1) The transaction duration is uncontrollable. The current mechanism for requesting retransmission requires some complicated timeout mechanism design on the client side, hoping for a simple one-time confirmation mechanism. (2) There is no global sorting mechanism, which results in limited types of operations supported by the system. Therefore, on the distributed ledger platform based on DAG technology, it is difficult to implement Turing's complete intelligent contract system.
In order to ensure that the smart contract can run, an organization is needed to do the above work. The current Coordinator or main chain can achieve similar results.
7.2. Negative effects
As one of the most intuitive indicators, DAG's TPS should theoretically be unlimited. If the maximum TPS of the IOTA platform is compared to the capacity of a factory, then the daily operation of TPS is the daily production of the plant.
For the largest TPS, the April 2017 IOTA stress test showed that the network had transaction processing capabilities of 112 CTPS and 895 TPS. This is the result of a small test network consisting of 250 nodes.
For the daily operation of TPS, from the data that is currently publicly available, the average TPS of the main network in the near future is about 8.2, and the CTPS (the number of confirmed transactions per second) is about 2.7.
📷
The average average TPS of the test network is about 4, and the CTPS is about 3.
📷
Data source discord bot: generic-iota-bot#5760
Is this related to the existence of Coordinator? Actual testing is needed to further demonstrate.
8. Measured analysis
The operational statistics of the open test network are related to many factors.For further analysis, we continue to use the IOTA platform as an example to build a private test environment for technical measurement analysis.
8.1. Test Architecture
The relationship between the components we built this test is shown below.
📷
among them:
8.2. Testing the hardware environment
The server uses Amazon AWS EC2 C5.4xlarge: 16 core 3GHz, Intel Xeon Platinum 8124M CPU, 32GB memory, 10Gbps LAN network between servers, communication delay (ping) is less than 1ms, operating system is Ubuntu 16.04.
8.3. Test scenarios and results analysis

8.3.1. Default PoW Difficulty Value

Although there is no concept such as “miners”, the IOTA node still needs to prove the workload before sending the transaction to avoid sending a large number of transactions to flood the network. The Minimum Weight Magnitude is similar to Bitcoin. The result of PoW should be the number of digits of "9", 9 of which is "000" in the ternary used by IOTA. The IOTA difficulty value can be set before the node is started.
Currently for the production network, the difficulty value of the IOTA is set to 14; the test network is set to 9. Therefore, we first use the test network's default difficulty value of 9 to test, get the following test results.
📷
Since each IOTA's bundle contains multiple transfers, the actual processed TPS will be higher than the send rate. But by executing the script that parses zmq, it can be observed that the current TPS is very low. Another phenomenon is that the number of requests that can be sent successfully per second is also low.
After analysis, the reason is that the test uses VPS, so in PoW, the CPU is mainly used for calculation, so the transaction speed is mainly affected by the transmission speed.

8.3.2. Decrease the PoW difficulty value

Re-test the difficulty value to 1 and get the following results.
📷
As can be seen from the results, TPS will increase after the difficulty is reduced. Therefore, the current TPS of the IOTA project does not reach the bottleneck where the Coordinator is located, but mainly because of the hardware and network of the client itself that sends the transaction. The IOTA community is currently working on the implementation of FPGA-based Curl algorithm and CPU instruction set optimization. Our test results also confirm that we can continue to explore the performance potential of the DAG platform in this way.

8.3.3. Reduce the number of test network nodes

Due to the characteristics of DAG, the actual TPS of the platform and the number of network nodes may also be related. Therefore, when the difficulty value is kept at 1, the number of network nodes is reduced to 10 and the test is repeated to obtain the following results.
📷
As can be seen from the results, as the number of nodes decreases, the actual processing of TPS also decreases, and is lower than the transmission rate. This shows that in a DAG environment, maintaining a sufficient size node will facilitate the processing of the transaction.
9. Reference materials
Https://www.iota.org/
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trilemma
Https://blog.iota.org/new-tip-selection-algorithm-in-iri-1-5-0-61294c1df6f1
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Markov\_chain\_Monte\_Carlo
Https://byteball.org/
Https://www.iotachina.com/iota.html
Https://www.iotachina.com/iota\_tutorial\_1.html
submitted by i0tal0ver to Iota [link] [comments]

Bitcoin is hailstones!

Bitcoin is hailstones!
Dmitry Shikhalev
[[email protected]](mailto:[email protected])
I have long wanted to consider Bitcoin’s chart again and not just look at it from a different angle, so to speak, to find more obvious and interesting reasons for its incredible take-off and the same sensational fall. And so what thought did our research lead us to?
Bitcoin is not the price of a profit generating company! Behind him there is no army and navy! The price of bitcoin, this is the wind of trading moods in the low-liquid field, which, under the influence of any external factors, radically changes its vector and movement trend. So is it possible to predict the price of Bitcoin? Let's try! According to the basic theory, the price is formed as follows:
The quantity is limited, the demand is unlimited, it means the price will increase! We propose to consider our theory. Look at the chart.
73
What is it? And this?
447

703
What do you see?
No, this is not a schedule of an asset, you see a numerical sequence. Yes, it is a numerical sequence, and, very simple! She has many names. More precisely than others, reflecting it, but only one will be true: "Hailstone Numbers". The graphically represented sequence of numbers obtained in the calculation is very similar to the trajectory of a hailstone in a thundercloud rising in air currents and then falling under its own gravity. "The higher it takes off, the lower it falls." But perhaps we will return to Bitcoin and recall this schedule. Bitcoin is not alone in its fate soaring like Icarus and fallen on wax wings. Bitcoin has "brothers" in misfortune, to be precise in terms of liquidity, utility and other criteria:
Rodium's schedule
A source www.kitco.com
Ruthenium's schedule
Ruthenium
Metals, like cryptocurrencies, do not have a Homeland or a Flag, so even the most expensive of them are Hailstone Numbers! Platinum chart
https://preview.redd.it/z1hnutpmbfc21.jpg?width=1124&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=83bb0d131dba5acb93a03b9e49f216e1588d4463
The very fact of the existence of "Hailstone Numbers" raises many questions. But, it is easy to see that the prices of assets obeying the rules of Hailstone Numbers grow when a “upward flow” is formed with a clear tendency “three steps forward - two steps back!”. If not, our hailstones fall under their own weight.

How to implement your investment ideas in such complex and uncontrolled assets the answer is simple. When buying Bitcoin and similar assets, always insure the position against falling! Catch the upstream! You have seen the trend - use margin trading, but without leverage in insuring your risks.
submitted by STIGAMMA to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

'What's wrong with my current cold storage method?' - an examination of potential weaknesses in the most common cold storage methods

Today we are going to discuss cold storage and some specific problems with cold storage. While this applies directly to the Secret Key portion of a key-pair; it also applies to the seed used to back up HD wallets and hardware wallets.
The best way to keep you seed/secret key safe is to have multiple copies in multiple locations perhaps with multiple formats and even better if the keys are split. However not everyone has access to multiple locations, or access to land long term, or more than one place to store their things. This is an examination of faults with individual methods; and not a comprehensive plan, obviously.
Not to say everything is all bad but there are many potential weakness out there, and some in the Bitcoin and crypto community like to know the edge cases of things.
I will also highlight some of the aspects of the Keyois Capsule which is a 'physical bitcoin'.
A physical Bitcoin is a cryptographic key pair, a physical key printed and affixed to what has always been before a coin. The first physical bitcoin coin was the Casascius coin, since then the world of physical bitcoin coins has blossomed as a fun part of the Bitcoin world.
We will focus on mediums relating to cold storage and not ones designed for more everyday use, but this applies to the seed you save to keep your everyday spending wallets safe and backed up.
We will assume you generated your keys securely and that you already have them on some medium. We will also have to ignore endpoint physical security because they can all be carried away the same. Remember your cell phone /hardware wallet/ computer client are only as good as where you put the backup seed phrase, which can be thought of as data much like the SK discussed below.
Written on a piece of paper
Printed on a piece of paper
On laminated paper
Engraved / etched/ ablated/ stamped on a piece of metal
Stored digitally on a computer
Stored digitally on CD, floppy disk, laserdisc, or mini-disc
Stored digitally on a flash drive
Backups are essential for digital data Computer code for performing operations can be corrupted in transfer or in operation. Special systems exist and procedures help data to last longer. For ideas, see this archive.gov page Remember to store in multiple locations. You can lose everything in single structure
A physical bitcoin coin
**What can solve most of these problems? A combination of good backup procedures and encryption. **
If you have permeant access to more than one location (people who live in big cities, without family or cars have a hard time with this) or have people you trust with your money (don't) then look into using some form of Multi-signature option.
The Keyois Capsule is a crypto piggy bank; it can be funded from the outside but you to break it open to get them out. You give me a BIP38 encrypted key pair (well the address not the public key) and I engrave it in this tamper evident and time resistant package. You still have to hold on to the pass phrase that allows you to decrypt it; that is however the same problem as all methods with BIP38 encryption. How to store this without having to trust anyone but still being assured of it's security?
  • Engraving, embossing, or stamping on a sheet of metal is one option; however the metals that are easiest to stamp are ones that melt in a house fire. They could be put in a glass jar that's filled with aerogel and buried. These is the best readily available option for most people but it really can be tedious. - This puts you back at anyone who can see it can steal it so dip in plastic dip, wrap in duct tape, bake in clay, encase in concrete, whatever just don't leave unencrypted keys visible!
  • The cryptosteel is another ready-made option
  • Have the words etched onto glass at home with off the shelf products; but be carful of this idea because the glass can shatter from impact and heat or even sudden temperature changes
  • Anodize the words yourself on a pieces of metal, there used to be a service to help use your home printer to print the words with some chemicals you can buy
  • Bake them in clay, then encase that in epoxy resin so it can't shatter. then paint the outside, in the future you can solvent the paint off and see the written seed
  • Use a combination of techniques to split the seed so that it is safe(because split and separated) and redundant (because backed up).
The most cost effective way for a 'normal' person (without their own land, without more than one location, and who cannot trust anyone else with their funds) to keep their backup seed/ secret key safe from damage from the elements would probably to buy a stamping kit and hammer and some stainless steel sheet or bar, Aluminium can be okay if you have the right alloy but better safe than sorry.
submitted by ProfBitcoin to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

'What is wrong with my current cold storage method' - an examination of potential weaknesses in the most common cold storage methods

Today we are going to discuss cold storage and some specific problems with cold storage. While this applies directly to the Secret Key portion of a key-pair; it also applies to the seed used to back up HD wallets and hardware wallets.
Not to say everything is all bad but there are many potential weakness out there, and some in the Bitcoin and crypto community like to know the edge cases of things.
I will also highlight some of the aspects of the Keyois Capsule which is a 'physical bitcoin'.
A physical Bitcoin is a cryptographic key pair, a physical key printed and affixed to what has always been before a coin. The first physical bitcoin coin was the Casascius coin, since then the world of physical bitcoin coins has blossomed as a fun part of the Bitcoin world.
We will focus on mediums relating to cold storage and not ones designed for more everyday use, but this applies to the seed you save to keep your everyday spending wallets safe and backed up.
We will assume you generated your keys securely and that you already have them on some medium. We will also have to ignore endpoint physical security because they can all be carried away the same. Remember your cell phone /hardware wallet/ computer client are only as good as where you put the backup seed phrase, which can be thought of as data much like the SK discussed below.
Written on a piece of paper
Printed on a piece of paper
On laminated paper
Engraved / etched/ ablated/ stamped on a piece of metal
Stored digitally on a computer
Stored digitally on CD, floppy disk, laserdisc, or mini-disc
Stored digitally on a flash drive
Backups are essential for digital data Computer code for performing operations can be corrupted in transfer or in operation. Special systems exist and procedures help data to last longer. For ideas, see this archive.gov page Remember to store in multiple locations. You can lose everything in single structure
A physical bitcoin coin
What can solve most of these problems? A combination of good backup procedures and encryption.
If you have permeant access to more than one location (people who live in big cities, without family or cars have a hard time with this) or have people you trust with your money (don't) then look into using some form of Multi-signature option.
The Keyois Capsule is a crypto piggy bank; it can be funded from the outside but you to break it open to get them out. You give me a BIP38 encrypted key pair (well the address not the public key) and I engrave it in this tamper evident and time resistant package. You still have to hold on to the pass phrase that allows you to decrypt it; that is however the same problem as all methods with BIP38 encryption. How to store this without having to trust anyone but still being assured of it's security?
  • Engraving, embossing, or stamping on a sheet of metal is one option; however the metals that are easiest to stamp are ones that melt in a house fire. They could be put in a glass jar that's filled with aerogel and buried. These is the best readily available option for most people but it really can be tedious.
  • The cryptosteel is another ready-made option
  • Have the words etched onto glass at home with off the shelf products; but be carful of this idea because the glass can shatter from impact and heat or even sudden temperature changes
  • Anodize the words yourself on a pieces of metal, there used to be a service to help use your home printer to print the words with some chemicals you can buy
  • Bake them in clay, then encase that in epoxy resin so it can't shatter. then paint the outside, in the future you can solvent the paint off and see the written seed
  • Use a combination of techniques to split the seed so that it is safe(because split and separated) and redundant (because backed up).
Characters stamped on Aluminium is probably the most cost effective way to keep a secret key or seed safe from fire and rot.
submitted by ProfBitcoin to btc [link] [comments]

Guys.. I think I'm on to something (upcoming bitcoin forks):

(Source found here)
submitted by MartinGandhiKennedy to btc [link] [comments]

GP of the Future, Invest Now

IF AND ONLY IF 3,200(X) = $8.00, Where X units of 'Platinum token.'
X = $0.0025
100,000,000X = $250,000, Where 100,000,000 subunits would equal 1 OSRS "Crown".
AND BITCOIN? $7,500 for 100,000,000 satoshi or 1 BTC.
From wikipedia: "satoshi is the smallest amount within bitcoin representing 0.00000001 bitcoins, one hundred millionth of a bitcoin"
submitted by carteken to 2007scape [link] [comments]

Why we shouldn't care what JP Morgan's Dimon says.

Steve Ballmer (Ex-CEO, Microsoft) once (2001), called Linux a cancer.
Source: https://www.theregister.co.uk/2001/06/02/ballmer_linux_is_a_cance
Several years later (today), Microsoft is one of the leading forces behind Linux.
Source: https://www.linuxfoundation.org/press-release/microsoft-fortifies-commitment-to-open-source-becomes-linux-foundation-platinum-membe
They have created custom distributions of Linux. And they have contributed to the Linux kernel a lot.
Windows 10 includes a Linux sub-system (From Canonical, Red Hat, Novell)
Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Microsoft_Linux_distributions
Source 2: http://www.zdnet.com/article/windows-10s-subsystem-for-linux-exits-beta-ready-for-fall-creators-update/
I am posting this for a reason. Just because the status-quo says something about Bitcoin and crypto's, doesn't mean they are right. It's the status-quo, they are supposed to say things like this
submitted by ylrxeidx to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

Anybody want to buy some NORFED Liberty Dollar brochures and Business Cards? Look here!

Proof photo and Album Click the photos for full-size
MODS: I figured I could post this here because it is relevant to silver and I know many of us SilverBugs are into Norfed Liberty Dollars. I have sold a few of these in /PMsForSale before, but that was with actual Silver LD rounds, so the listing had actual PMs and was relevant there. No actual PMs with this so I didn't think PMsForSale was the right place. Please let it stay, I think people will really dig reading the brochures and owning a piece of silver history.
Hey everybody, as a fellow SilverBug I lurk here often and occasionally make posts and rarely make a thread or 2. I have sold several different items in /PMsForSale before, and as some of you know I am frequently selling silver Norfed Liberty Dollar rounds. I have my own personal collection, and I buy/sell and trade them often; they are my favorite PMs to collect and work with. I have a few different Norfed guys who were involved with Norfed since the early days that I have come to know over time and routinely place orders with them, and I can source almost every Liberty Dollar round ever minted (except for the fractional Golds at the moment), including many of the most rare pieces.
I had bought a good handful of these Norfed LD brochures and business cards before from one of my contacts, and today I received the order I had been waiting on- the complete rest of his stock!
These brochures are very cool, interesting, and relatively rare. I am currently the only one selling them on eBay, as far as I know, but any of you fellow 'Bugs that want one or more can get a special SilverBug price lower than my listed FleaBay price. I could probably come down a little bit on quantity discounts, and could definitely talk quantity discounts for the business cards.
The brochures are a Liberty Dollar brochure released in 2007 (shortly before the raid by the FBI and Secret Service), and they are in great condition. The brochure describes basic information about the Liberty Dollar currency and how it works, and explains inflation and the drop in value of the US Dollar in comparison. It is very interesting and informative, and is a must-have to complement your existing Norfed Liberty Dollar collection, or just something cool to have as we're into silver and it is a unique part of silver history.
This brochure is #7 in "The Liberty Dollar Encyclopedia"- https://sites.google.com/site/libertydollarencyclopedia/brochures
With each purchase of a brochure I'm also including a nice "$20 Silver Base" business card for Norfed and the Liberty Dollar!
Brief Back Story (for those who don't know): Forming in 1998, Norfed (National Organization for the Repeal of the FEDeral Reserve and the Internal Revenue Code) sought out to create an alternative circulating currency that was actually backed by real value (i.e.- Gold, Silver, Platinum), unlike the US Dollar which had lost its gold & silver backing and became only a paper fiat currency. From 1998 to 2007, Norfed produced and sold Silver and Gold "Liberty Dollars" and encouraged them to be circulated and spent within buyers' local communities. Liberty Dollars had been minted by Sunshine Minting, the same mint that produced many of the planchets that the US gov. used for their own coins, and each coin was minted with a "Proof" quality strike, although Bernard von Nothaus (Norfed founder) did not like to refer to them as Proof coins since they were intended for circulation. In late 2007, the FBI and Secret Service raided Liberty Dollar offices and Sunshine Minting and seized millions of dollars worth of Norfed's and customers' Gold, Silver, and Platinum, in addition to almost 2 tons of Silver "Ron Paul Dollars" they had just created for the Anti-Fed. Reserve US Senator and then presidential-hopeful Ron Paul. Bernard von Nothaus was indicted (along with 3 others) and charged with several Federal crimes, and the US basically said he was counterfeiting US coins and attempting to pass them.
Anyways, it's a fascinating story and a logic & reasoning that I think many silvegold stackers can understand. Read More here: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liberty_Dollar
I'm asking $6.50 shipped for 1 of each, and this price includes tracked shipping in a bubble mailer, with the brochure and card taped in between 2 layers of cardboard (to ensure your purchase does not get bent in transit).
If you're okay with me folding it up in a few pieces of paper and shipping it in an envelope with a stamp, I can do you fellow 'Bugs a special price of $4.50 shipped! (Please note that this method will not come with any tracking, but I can send you a proof pic of the stamped and addressed envelope before I send it if you want.) If paying with Bitcoin, take 50 cents off your total!
I have seen single Norfed Liberty Dollar brochures sold on eBay before for $10-$12 a piece, and have seen single "$20 Base" business cards listed for $10+ themselves. You can own one of each for only $4.50-$6.50 Shipped (depending on your shipping preference)!
Quantity discounts available! The proof picture is only a chunk of them. Message for details!
Payment Info: PayPal Friends & Family (with a blank note line) or Bitcoin only please. (But if you're wanting to buy a big enough quantity I could maybe justify setting up a Google Wallet thingy.)
Would also consider trade ideas! Make a trade offer; you've got nothing to lose!
If you have any questions, comments, or concerns just ask! PM to buy!
Thanks
submitted by snarlpill to Silverbugs [link] [comments]

The EQ:N economy in a Metaverse/Virtual World...

So EQ:N has goals of becoming a Metaverse...
To get a good idea of what is economically possible within these environments, please sample Second Life.
Given the appropriate sandbox tools, players can evolve a virtual world in ways that developers never even imagined... Just view the Second Life marketplace here. People are even transferring their in game wealth into Bitcoin and other crypto currencies.
So many questions...
submitted by gripmyhand to EQNext [link] [comments]

Cost, Value, Price, Money, and Emergy -- Developing ideas, request for references (and sanity check)

Over the past several months I've been developing some thoughts on fundamental underpinnings of economics, particularly the concepts of cost, value, price, money, and working in an ecological principle, emergy (with an 'M'). I've found some references, I'm seeking more for both conventional and unconventional thinking.
The most recent draft is at Ello, "What's the value of the Universe in dollars? All of them". I'm not entirely satisfied, though it's shaping up fairly well.

Definitions

My terms aren't quite as typically used in economic discussion, though close, and I believe defensible.

Prior discussion

I've been developing these ideas largely at The Other Place, within my Economics Collection. In particular, in date order:
  1. Cost, Price, Value: Earth and Ecosystem Services (17 Jan 2016). Looking at how economists and ecologists value ecosystems, my first development of cost, price, and value as three distinct (though not unrelated) concepts. Relation: cost < price < value. Antecedents in Aldo Leopold, A Sand County Almanac.
  2. Cost, Value, and Price: Three separate concepts (22 Jan 2016). Taking the distinctness of each concept slightly further.
  3. Toward a fundamental basis of cost and value (24 Jan 2016). Bringing in concepts from ecology, especially Eugene Odum & Gary Barrett, Fundamentals of Ecology (2005), and Howard T. Odum, "The Energetic Basis for Valuation of Ecosystem Services" (2000). Also Jeffrey S. Dukes "Burning Buried Sunshine" (PDF).
  4. A development of Emergy to Currency (26 Jan 2016). Elliott T. Campbell, David R. Tilley, "The eco-price: How environmental emergy equates to currency", Ecosystem Services. March 2014, Vol.7:128–140, doi:10.1016/j.ecoser.2013.12.002. "Energy flows through economies in a hierarchical pattern with vast amounts supporting the base while each step has less and less flowing through it. Money is inextricably connected to many of these energy flows in a countercurrent."
  5. Emergy and emergy accounting (26 Jan 2016). Reference to Mary Odum (daughter of Howard T.) Emergy: you spelled energy wrong!. Primer on emergy concepts.
  6. Sustainable Economics Modeling -- the role of entropy (26 Jan 2016). Link to Garvin H. Boyle's Orrery Software -- Entropy in ABMs. Agent-based modeling of energy and entropy in economics.
  7. What would be the effects of having multiple currencies for different economic purposes? (28 Jan 2016). Say, quotidian vs. interbank transactions.
  8. Price (or cost) in Economics (29 Jan 2016). Krugman and Wells, Economics: "All costs are opportunity costs."
  9. Money, Value, Prices ... sounds familiar (8 Feb 2016). Ludwig von Mises, The Theory of Money and Credit. Among von Mises' claims, that (use) value cannot be known. He is incorrect.
  10. Cost, Value, Prices: Assessing Natural Capital (9 Feb 2016). A WashPo article on a paper by Eli Fenichel, "Measuring the value of groundwater and other forms of natural capital", based on earlier development by Dale Jorgenson in 1963. Fenichel's approach to value is interesting, but I believe it's a misplaced focus from cost.
  11. Cost, Value, Price: W. F. Lloyd, 1833 (10 Feb 2016). Lloyd's essay, published based on "A Lecture on the Notion of Value as Distinguished Not Only From Utility, but also from Value in Exchange establishes several interesting points, "All value is relative" (M. Say, similar from others). Also, curiously prescient of Albert Einstein, some 80 years later.
  12. More on cost, value, and price, in context of living wages and equality, with some bits on taxation and redistribution (20 Feb 2016). My first attempt to really draft everything into a coherent whole. Draws in Gresham's Law.
  13. Value: a red herring (24 Feb 2016). The idea that in most market circumstances, setting a specific value on a good is a distraction. I'm now thinking I've taken this a bit too far, but it remains useful. Specifically, in many arguments the case is made that 1) value matters, 2) it cannot be precisely known (because it's an internal mental/psychic state), and therefore attempts to prescribe or control or quantify it are bound to failure. My upshot: so long as value exceeds costs the market's going to function. And, on the large/aggregate scale, ecological/biological type methods to assess value work sufficiently for analytic purposes.

Other references

As noted, this is a frequent topic of discussion. Among those discussing price, cost, and value that I'm aware:

Adam Smith Wealth of Nations.

Multiple aspects are considered, including: the origin and use of Money, and money as part of general stock, and of prices of commodities, labour, stock, and land.

Value (economics) (Wikipedia)

Usual caveats -- this is Wikipedia, a guide but not a source.
Reassuringly, economic value seems to match my use:
[E]conomic value is not the same as market price, nor is economic value the same thing as market value.
And yes, this seems like a continuing puzzle in economics:
The economic value of a good or service has puzzled economists since the beginning of the discipline. First, economists tried to estimate the value of a good to an individual alone, and extend that definition to goods which can be exchanged. From this analysis came the concepts value in use and value in exchange.
There is a Theory of Value.
In neoclassical economics, the value of an object or service is often seen as nothing but the price it would bring in an open and competitive market... As such, everything is seen as a commodity and if there is no market to set a price then there is no economic value.
A/K/A "value in exchange".
In classical economics, the value of an object or condition is the amount of discomfort/labor saved through the consumption or use of an object or condition (Labor Theory of Value).
...
Steve Keen makes the claim that "value" refers to "the innate worth of a commodity, which determines the normal ('equilibrium') ratio at which two commodities exchange."
Citing: Steve Keen Debunking Economics, New York, Zed Books (2001) p. 271, ISBN 1-86403-070-4, OCLC 45804669
In which case, Steve and I disagree. See W.F. Lloyd and M. Say.
Though:
To Keen and the tradition of David Ricardo, this corresponds to the classical concept of long-run cost-determined prices, what Adam Smith called "natural prices" and Karl Marx called "prices of production."
That I agree with more, though I'd clarify by calling it the innate cost. Any value must then exceed this cost.
There's John Ruskin who wrote on the moral concept of value in Unto This Last. Notably:
It is impossible to conclude, of any given mass of acquired wealth, merely by the fact of its existence, whether it signifies good or evil to the nation in the midst of which it exists. Its real value depends on the moral sign attached to it, just as strictly as that of a mathematical quantity depends on the algebraic sign attached to it. Any given accumulation of commercial wealth may be indicative, on the one hand, of faithful industries, progressive energies, and productive ingenuities: or, on the other, it may be indicative of mortal luxury, merciless tyranny, ruinous chicanery.
Ruskin influenced Gandhi.
Mises appears:
Economists such as Ludwig von Mises asserted that "value," meaning exchange value, was always the result of subjective value judgements.... Thus, it was false to say that the economic value of a good was equal to what it cost to produce or to its current replacement cost.
No, not false. Different concepts.
Related:

William Stanley Jevons, Money and the Mechanism of Exchange (1875)

Among the classic works on the topic. Jevons' contents cover many of the topics and concepts I've been blundering into, though he's also concerned with the physical instanciation -- at the time of his writing, banknotes were still fairly new, and the were serious questions over multi-metallic standards (e.g., gold or silver, or gold and silver). Briefly:

Does a revised model offer any explanatory power?

There are several questions, most pressing of which is "am I completely nuts". Running close behind is "what does this buy us"?
I'd really like to be able to explain contradictions, paradoxes, or failures of existing economic theory in establishing value. There's the case of under-priced resources and the shutdown decision, noted above.
The dual approach to pollution externalities is another. Not sure if this is Coase, Lucas, Rawls, or another, but essentially, if one party pollutes and another has to deal with the consequences, conventional economic theory can make an equal case that either the polluter pays a fine for the harm, or the nonpolluter pays the polluter not to pollute. Being able to explain this would be nice.
If price is simply a control-system cost, then summing up control system costs over the entire economy ... doesn't really seem like a sensible operation. It tells you how much encouragement is needed to precipitate trade, but needn't address either cost nor value. This suggests that computing economic prices isn't ... all it's cracked up to be. And that perhaps cost is a better basis.
It could well be that ecologists are chasing the wrong target. They should be mapping economic costs to ecological ones, not the other way around?
Skimming Jevons, he addresses the cognizability of currency -- that is, you want people to be able to instantly recognise money as money. And not have to test it for worth or value. That's tickling some nerves, with Gresham's Law and Bitcoin both coming to mind. Gresham's Law: readily recognised value is a positive. Bitcoin; inherently noncognizable.
Observed economic behavior should be describable or derivable from this explanation. Coming up with a normative this is how things should be story ... that doesn't describe reality, isn't particularly useful. It is, however, practical.
I'm aware that some of what I'm suggesting goes against a few thousand years of economic thinking. On the other hand, some of what I've blundered into appears to be well in line with what's come before, and I'm independently deriving it.
Some simple targets would be to describe products made or labour provided continuously. Being able to describe pricing behavior and pricing mechanisms, and to show how stocks (that is, fixed quantities of goods) or asset classes behave, would be useful.
Describing monetary behavior more generally even more interesting.
And that all remains a work in process.
As I noted at the top: this is something I've been developing for the past couple of months. I'm researching what I can find of existing theory and understanding. Additional references, and noting where I'm off in the weeds would be highly appreciated.
submitted by dredmorbius to dredmorbius [link] [comments]

The smart Trick of Bitcoin - Wikipedia That Nobody is ... Facts About Bitcoin - Wikipedia Uncovered - YouTube Bitcoin Era Review 2020 : SCAM or Legit? Live Results ... The Buzz on Bitcoin - Wikipedia - YouTube YouTube

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